Related Topics: Catholicism William S. Farneman CAM International, 8625 La Prada Drive, Dallas, TX 75228. (214) 327-8206
Scholastic theologians from the 11th to 13th centuries shifted the time scheme to motives; the desire to procreate with "joy in a new servant of God" was considered the best motive for intercourse.  :143 Bertold of Regensburg considered a woman innocent if she was forced to do it on the prohibited times by her husband and she did not will it.  :144 Because intercourse was only allowed for procreative reasons, various penitentials (rule books) also forbade intercourse between sterile or older partners, although never assigning a penalty.  :151 Heinemann says that oral and anal intercourse were often punished by more years of penance than for premeditated murder, as they prevented conception from occurring.  :149 Although practice varied, menstruating women were often forbidden to attend Mass or receive Communion, in which the Latin Church took a more moderate stance than the Eastern Churches .  :24 Since the blood from childbirth was believed more harmful than menstrual blood, the Synod of Trier (1227) ruled that women who had just given birth had to be "reconciled with the Church" before they allowed to enter church. They often could not buried in the cemetery if they died in childbirth before had undergone a purifying ritual, a policy which was rejected by several synods.  :25 The Council of Trent (1566), and several synods after that, did not impose abstinence from intercourse on certain times as an "obligation", but as an "admonition".  :145
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Nichole Flores Henry