Ralph Waldo Ellison (March 1, 1913 – April 16, 1994) was an American novelist, literary critic, and scholar. Ellison is best known for his novel ...
In the book, Judy's involvement in Madeleine's death was not revealed until the denouement . At the script stage, Hitchcock suggested revealing the secret two-thirds of the way through the film, so that the audience would understand Judy's mental dilemma.  After the first preview, Hitchcock was unsure whether to keep the "letter writing scene" or not. He decided to remove it. Herbert Coleman, Vertigo' s associate producer and a frequent collaborator with Hitchcock, felt the removal was a mistake. However, Hitchcock said, "Release it just like that." James Stewart, acting as mediator, said to Coleman, "Herbie, you shouldn't get so upset with Hitch. The picture's not that important." Hitchcock's decision was supported by Joan Harrison , another member of his circle, who felt that the film had been improved. Coleman reluctantly made the necessary edits. When he received news of this, Paramount head Barney Balaban was very vocal about the edits and ordered Hitchcock to "Put the picture back the way it was." As a result, the "letter writing scene" remained in the final film. 
 Deirdre Martinez, Who speaks for Hispanics?: Hispanic Interest Groups in Washington (SUNY Press, 2009), . Cited in David Horowitz and Jacob Laksin, The New Leviathan (New York: Crown Forum, 2012), p. 67.
 David Horowitz and Jacob Laksin, The New Leviathan (New York: Crown Forum, 2012), p. 66.
 In addition to the $30 million which the Ford Foundation awarded to NCLR from 1972-2002, Ford also gave nearly $10 million more from 2003-2012. ( Information courtesy of the Foundation Center )
 David Horowitz and Jacob Laksin, The New Leviathan (New York: Crown Forum, 2012), pp. 65-66.
(Information on granters courtesy of The Foundation Center , GuideStar , ActivistCash , the Capital Research Center and Undue Influence )
Every story in Arimah’s debut collection stories manage the difficult task of being both complex and inviting. Part of the appeal is also the gorgeous sentences Arimah constructs. The subjects are tough, and the situations are often dire, but there’s something oddly comforting at the heart of these stories. Perhaps it’s that in these troubling worlds there are characters with whom we can relate. Or maybe it’s simpler than that. Maybe they are us.
The award was his ticket into the American literary establishment. He eventually was admitted to the American Academy of Arts and Letters , received two President's Medals (from Lyndon Johnson and Ronald Reagan ) and a State Medal from France. He was the first African-American admitted to the Century Association  and was awarded an honorary Doctorate from Harvard University . Disillusioned by his experience with the Communist Party, he used his new fame to speak out for literature as a moral instrument.  :70–72 In 1955 he traveled to Europe, visiting and lecturing, settling for a time in Rome , where he wrote an essay that appeared in a 1957 Bantam anthology called A New Southern Harvest . Robert Penn Warren was in Rome during the same period, and the two writers became close friends.  Later, Warren would interview Ellison about his thoughts on race, history, and the Civil Rights Movement for his book Who Speaks for the Negro?  In 1958, Ellison returned to the United States to take a position teaching American and Russian literature at Bard College and to begin a second novel, Juneteenth . During the 1950s, he corresponded with his lifelong friend, the writer Albert Murray . In their letters they commented on the development of their careers, the Civil Rights Movement , and other common interests including jazz. Much of this material was published in the collection Trading Twelves (2000).